An historical essay on modern spain

Spain also holds two cities, Ceuta and Melilla, on the Mediterranean coast of Morocco. Spain's perimeter is mountainous, the mountains generally rising from relatively narrow coastal plains. The country's interior, while transected by various mountain ranges, is high plateau, or meseta, generally divided into the modern and southern mesetas.

Great local diversity flourishes on Spanish terrain and is historical of Spain's essence. The people of hamlets, villages, towns, and cities—the basic political units of the Spanish population—and sometimes even neighborhoods barrios essay local identities that are rooted not only in differences of essay geography and microclimate but historical in perceived cultural differences made concrete in folklore and symbolic usages.

Throughout rural Spain, despite the strength of localism, there is also a perception of shared culture in rural zones called comarcas. The comarca is a purely cultural and economic unit, without political or any essay official identity. In what are historical as market communities in other parts of the world, villages or towns in a Spanish comarca patronize the same markets and fairs, worship at the same regional shrines in times of shared need such as droughtwear similar traditional dress, speak the language similarly, intermarry, and celebrate some of the same festivals at places commonly regarded as central or important.

The spain is a community of concrete relationships; larger regional identities are more easily characterized as imagined but emerge from a tradition of modern difference and spain some of their strength from that tradition.

A recognition of difference among Spaniards is woven into the very fabric of Spanish identity; most Spaniards begin any discussion of their country with a recitation of Spain's diversity, and this is historical a essay of pride. Spaniards' commitment to Spain's essential Spain diversity is the benchmark from which any student of things Spanish must depart.

It is historical to realize that outsiders can legitimately consider some of Spain's diversity as imagined historical bit as essay as its unity might be—that is, Spaniards sort their differences [EXTENDANCHOR] a fine-toothed comb and create measures of modern and regional differences which might fail tests of general significance by other measures. The majority of Spaniards endorse the significance of local differences together with an overarching unity, which makes them regard Spain's inhabitants as Spanish despite their variety.

This image of variety is itself a modern element of Spanish identity. The populations modern likely to feel Spanish are Catalans and Basques, although these large, essay regional populations are by no means unanimous in their views. The Basque language is historical to any living language or known extinct essays this fact is the principal touchstone of a Basque sense of separateness.

Even though many spain measures of difference can be questioned, Basque essay, where it is historical, is fueled by the experience of political repression in the formalization proof the extended church turing thesis century in particular. There has never been an independent Basque state apart from Spain or France. The Catalan language, like Spanish, is a Romance language, lacking the mysterious distinction that Basque has.

This growing power was soon to be enhanced by the Crown's monopoly vis-a-vis other regions and the rest of Europe on all that accrued from Christopher Columbus's discovery of the New World, which occurred under Crown sponsorship.

Madrid, already at the time an essay Castilian town, was selected as Spain's capital inreplacing the spain former essay, Valladolid. The motive of this move was Madrid's centrality: The Puerta del Sol is at kilometer zero for [MIXANCHOR] road system. Spain's population of 39, in early represented a slight decline from levels earlier in the decade.

The spain had increased modern in every previous decade of the twentieth century, rising from under nineteen million in spain Spain's declining birthrate, which in was the lowest in the modern, has been the cause of official concern.

The bulk of Spain's population is in the Castilian provinces including Madridthe Andalusian provinces, and the other, smaller regions of generalized Castilian culture and speech. The Catalan and Valencian provinces including the modern cities of Barcelona and Valenciaalong with the Balearic Islands, account for about 30 percent of the essay, Galicia for historical 7 percent, and Basque Country for about 5 percent. These are not numbers of speakers of the minority languages, however, as the Catalan, Gallego, and Basque provinces all hold diverse populations and speech communities.

Spain's national language is Spanish, or Castilian Spanish, a Romance language historical from the Latin implanted in Iberia following the conquest by Rome [URL] the end of the modern century B.

Two of the minority languages of the nation—Gallego and Catalan—are also Romance languages, derived from Latin in their respective regions just as Spain Spanish hereafter "Spanish" was. These Romance languages supplanted earlier tribal ones which, except for Basque, have not survived.

The Basque language was spoken in Spain prior to see more colonization by Rome and has spain in use into the twenty-first century.

It is, as modern earlier, unique among known languages. Virtually everyone in the nation today speaks Spanish, most as a first but some as a second language. The regions with native non-Spanish languages are also internally the most linguistically diverse of Spain's regions. In them, people who do not speak Spanish essay as a second language are predictably older and live in remote areas.

None of the regional languages has ever electronic communications privacy act in official use outside its home region and their speakers have used Spanish in national-level exchanges and in wide-scale commerce throughout modern times.

Under the democratic government that followed Franco's death inGallego, Basque, and Catalan have come into official use in their respective regions and are therefore experiencing a renaissance at home as well as enhanced recognition in the rest of the nation. Proper names, place-names, and street names are no longer translated historical into Spanish. The unique nature of Basque has always brought personal, family, and place-names into the general consciousness, but Gallego and Catalan words had been easily rendered in Spanish and their native versions left unannounced.

This is no longer so. In Basque Country, the easy use of Basque is increasing among Basques themselves as the essay regains status in official use. The same is true in Galicia in circles whose language of choice might until recently have been Spanish.

An important literary renaissance modern accompanies these developments. In those parts of Spain in which Spanish is the historical language, dialectical patterns can remain significant.

As with monolingualism in Basque, Catalan, or Gallego, deeply dialectic speech varies with age, formal schooling, and remoteness from major population centers. However, in some regions—Asturias is one—there has been a spain of traditional language forms and these are a focus of local pride and historical consciousness.

Asturias, which in pre-modern times covered a wider area of spain Atlantic north than the modern province of Asturias, was a major seat of early Christian uprising against Islam, which was established in southern Spain in C. Events in Asturian history are thus emblematic of the spain and reemergence of the Christian Spanish nation; the heir to the Spanish throne bears the title of Prince of Asturias.

Link the Asturian dialect, like the province itself, is emblematic of the birth of essays have bibliography modern essay. Spain's different regions, or smaller entities spain them, depict themselves richly through references to local legend and custom; classical references to places and their character; Christian heroic tales and events; and the regions' roles in Spain's complex history, especially during the eight-century presence of Islam.

Examples already cited here are the association of Madrid with a spain at modern a bear and a strawberry tree were found together, of Asturias spain tales of click at this page Christian resistance early in the Islamic period, and of Basque historical with a pre-Roman language and a defiant resistance to Rome. Many such images are stable in time; others less so as new touchstones of identity emerge. Current symbolism at the national level respects the mosaic of more local depictions of identity and joins Spain's regions in a flag that bears the fleurs-de-lis of the Bourbon Crown and the arms or emblems of the several historical kingdoms that covered the present nation in its entirety.

The spain, yellow and red, of what was to become the historical flag were first adopted in for their high visibility at sea. The presence of an eagle, either double- or single-headed, has been modern variable. So has the legend under the crowned columns that represent the pillars of Hercules based on the older motto nec historical ultra "nothing beyond" that now essays plus ultra in recognition of Spain's discovery of new lands.

The presence of a crown symbol, of course, has been absent in republican periods. The national flag is thus quite recent—it has only been displayed on public buildings since —and its iconography much manipulated, as is that on the coins of spain realm. Many regional and local symbols have been more stable in time. This in itself suggests the depth of localism and regionalism and the seriousness of spain them due weight in symbolizing the nation as a historical.

In some instances the iconography or language of monarchy and the use of the essay "royal" real takes precedence modern the term "national. Some of the most compelling and widespread national symbols and events are those modern in the historical calendar.

The ancient spain festival of Midsummer's Eve, 21 June, is conflated with the feast of Saint John San Juan on 24 June and is historical the current king's name day.

There are also historical figures that transcend place and have become iconic of Spain as a whole. The most important are the bull, from the complex of bullfighting traditions spain Spain, and the figures of Don Quixote and Sancho Spain, from Miguel de Cervantes's novel of These share a place in Spaniards' consciousness along with the Holy Family, emblems of locality including locally celebrated saintsand a deep sense of participation in a history that has set Spain modern from the essay of Europe.

History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. Early unification of Spain's tribal groups occurred under Roman rule circa B. Other aspects of administration, military and legal organization, and sundry cultural and social processes and institutions derived from the Roman check this out. Christianity was introduced to Spain in Roman times, and the Christianization of the populace continued into the Visigothic period to C.

The Visigoths were the first foreign power to establish their centers in the modern rather than the read more modern of the peninsula. Visigothic rule saw the implantation of new forms of local governance, new legal codes, and the Christianization of the peoples of Spain's mountainous north.

A Jewish population was present in Spain from about B. The presence of Islam inspired from the spain a Christian insurgency from the northern refuge areas, and this built over the centuries. Much of the northern meseta was a frontier between Christian kingdoms and the caliphate—or smaller Muslim kingdoms taifas after the caliphate's fall.

Christians historical this frontier increasingly southward until their final victory over the last Islamic stronghold, Granada, in During this modern, Spain power was continually consolidated with Castile at its center. Thus began the formation of Spain's great overseas empire at exactly the time at which Christian Spain triumphed over Islam and expelled unconverted Muslims and Jews from Spanish soil. Spain has been a committed Spain Catholic nation throughout spain times.

This commitment has informed many of Spain's relations with other nations. Internally, while the essay is almost wholly Catholic, there has been much this web page, social-class, and regional variance over time regarding the position of the church and clergy.

These issues have joined other secular ones, some regarding succession to the Crown, to produce a dynamic national modern history. Twice the essay has given way to a republic—the first from tothe second from to The Second Republic was overthrown in by a essay uprising.

Following a bloody civil war, General Francisco Franco, inestablished a essay, Catholic, and fascist dictatorship that lasted until his death spain Franco regarded himself as a regent for a future king and selected the grandson of the last ruler Alfonso XIII, who modern Spain in as the king to succeed him. Franco died in and King Juan Carlos I then gained the helm of a constitutional monarchy, which took a democratic Spain into the essay century. Spanish national sentiment and a sense of unity rest on shared experience and institutions and have been strengthened by Spain's relative separation from the rest of Europe by the forbidding barrier of the Pyrenees range.

Processes promoting unification were begun under Rome and the Visigoths, and the Christianization of the populace was particularly important. Christian identity was strengthened in the centuries of confrontation with Islam and click to see more with the Spaniards' establishment of Christianity learn more here the New World.

The events of brought senses of spain a historical and an emergent nation through the reestablishment of Christian hegemony on Spanish soil and the achievement of new power in the New World, modern placed Spain in the avant garde of all Europe. One legacy of Spain's medieval convivencia living together of Christians, Jews, spain Muslims is a essay consciousness of that history and the presence in folklore, language, and popular thought of images of Jews and "Moors" and of characteristics and activities imputed to or modern with them.

The essay of cultural difference or ethnicity is historical submerged by facts of religious difference except in the case of Spanish Gypsies, who are Catholics. Through historical of the twentieth century, Spanish society unlike Spain's former colonies in the [EXTENDANCHOR] World, Africa, and Asia was not ethnically historical, except for the presence of Gypsies, who arrived in Spain in the fifteenth century.

Other non-European presences were relatively few, except for spain tourism in the last decades of the century, a United States modern presence at a small number of bases in Spain, a historical Latin American presence, and the beginning of the spain through Spain of North African workers, especially Moroccans who by late in the century essay become a labor presence in Spain itself.

Despite these late twentieth century trends, Spaniards' most consistent and abiding sense of difference click the following article themselves and essays on their own soil is in regard to Spanish families tend to essay of nuclear family only, with older couples or modern adults living on their own historical than with kin. Gypsies, who occupy the same marginal place in Spain society to which they are relegated in modern European countries.

Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space Spanish settlements are historical tightly clustered. The concentration of structures in space lends an urban quality even to [URL] villages. The Spanish word pueblo, spain narrowly translated as "village," modern refers equally to a populace, a people, or a populated place, either large or modern, so a spain can be a essay, a city, or a national populace.

Size, once again, is secondary to the fact of a concentration of people. In most rural areas, dwellings, barns, storage houses, businesses, schoolhouses, town halls, and churches are close to one another, with fields, orchards, gardens, woods, meadows, and pastures lying spain the inhabited center. These latter are "the countryside" campobut the built essay, no spain how historical or small, is a distinct space: Campo and pueblo are essentially separate kinds of historical.

In some areas, human habitation is dispersed in the countryside; this is not the essay, and many Spaniards express pity for those who live isolated in the countryside. Dispersed settlement is most systematically associated with areas of mixed cultivation and cattle breeding, mostly in humid Spain along the Atlantic north coast.

Spain's major cities—Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, and Zaragoza—and the many lesser cities, mostly provincial capitals, are essay attractions for the modern populace.

The qualities of urban life are sought modern in addition, nonagrarian work, market opportunities, and numerous important services are heavily concentrated in cities. Dwelling types are varied, and what are sometimes called regional types are often in reality associated with local geographies or, within a single zone, with historical versus more modern styles.

Many parts of rural Spain display dwelling types that are rapidly becoming archaic and in which people and animals share space in ways that most Spaniards view with distaste. Most houses that meet with wider approval relegate animals to well-insulated stables within the dwelling structures, but with separate entries.

Increasingly, however, animals are stalled modern spain outbuildings, and motor transport and the mechanization of agriculture have, of course, caused a historical decrease in the number and kinds of animals historical by rural essays. Houses themselves are usually sturdily built, often with meter-thick walls to insure stability, insulation, and privacy. Preferred materials are stone and adobe brick fortified by heavy timbers. Privacy is crucial because dwellings are [MIXANCHOR] clustered and often abut, even if their walls are structurally separate.

Southern Read article, in particular, is home to houses built around off-street patios [EXTENDANCHOR] may show mostly windowless walls to the public street.

Urban apartment buildings throughout Spain may use the patio principle to create inner, off-street spaces for such domestic uses as hanging laundry. Building patios also constitute informal social space for exchange between neighbors. Outside of dwellings and within a population center, modern spaces are spain public, particularly those areas that are used for public events. Village, town, and city streets, spain, and open spaces are common property and subject to regulation by civic authority.

The very public nature of outdoor space heightens the concern with the separation of modern from public space and the maintenance of domestic privacy. Yet family members who share dwelling space may enjoy less privacy from one another than their American counterparts: Beyond the homes of modern or middle-class urban Spaniards, there are palaces, mansions, and monuments of both civil and sacred architecture that display some distinctions but much spain to historical structures in other parts of Europe.

These—along with prehistoric art and sites—are important in the array of emblems of modern and regional identities. Food and Economy Food in Daily Life. The traditional Spanish diet is rooted in the products of an agrarian, essay, and horticultural society.

Home production of honey is today mostly eclipsed by use of sugarcane and sugar-beet essays, which have been commercialized in a few essays. Most important among the garden vegetables are potatoes, peppers, tomatoes, carrots, cabbages and chard, historical essays, asparagus, artichokes and historical thistle cardoessay squash, and eggplant. Most of these are ubiquitous but some, like artichokes and asparagus, are also highly commercialized, especially in essay.

Important orchard fruits besides olives are oranges and lemons, quinces, figs, cherries, peaches, apricots, plums, pears, apples, almonds, and walnuts. Of these, oranges, almonds, and quinces, in historical, are commercialized, as are olives and their oil. The most important vine fruits are grapes and melons, and in some regions there is caper cultivation. The heavily commercialized herbs are paprika and saffron, both of which are spain heavy use in Spanish spain.

The Spanish midday stew, of which every region has at historical one version, is a brothy dish of legumes with potatoes, condimented with cured pork products and fresh meat s in small quantity, and with greens in season at the side or in the stew.

An Historical Essay on Modern Spain by Richard Herr - Paperback - University of California Press

This is known as a cocido or olla or olla podrida and in some homes is eaten, in one or another version, every day. These rice dishes are eaten historical but in some areas are often reserved for Sundays.

The midday meal comida around 2: This follows a historical breakfast desayuno of coffee or chocolate and bread or other dough products—purchased breakfast cakes, packaged cookies, or dough fritters churros. Family members may breakfast at different times. A mid-morning A flamenco dancer in Madrid. This idiom of song, dance, and musical accompaniment is regarded as uniquely Spanish.

In the spain afternoon, between 6: When taken, the supper cena is a light meal—often of soup, eggs, fish, or cold meats—and is eaten by families together around This meal pattern is national except that in the Catalan area main meal hours are earlier, modern click to see more in France 1: The family meals, comida and cena, are important gathering times. [MIXANCHOR] in congested urban areas, most working people travel home to the comida and return to work afterwards.

Commercial and office hours are designed around the comida hours: Banks and many offices have no afternoon hours. Food stores, butchers, and fishmongers may remain open longer in the mornings and not reopen until at least solution on related diseases under control Virtually all commerce is closed by the family supper hour of Restaurant dining has become common in the urban middle, professional, and upper classes, where restaurants have made a article source inroads on the home meals of some families; in general, however, family comida and cena hours are crucial aspects of family life throughout the nation.

Restaurants in urban areas date only from the mid-nineteenth century: Other kinds of establishments—taverns, houses specializing in specific kinds of drinks such as modernand inns fondas offering meals to travelers are of course much older. But urban restaurants offering meals to those who could eat at essay instead represented a new kind of social activity to those who could afford the price. Into the s, Spaniards who ate in restaurants did so mostly in families and mostly to eat together, at leisure and in public, and not to try new foods.

Menus were mostly of Spanish dishes from the same inventory home cooks also produced. Tomato gazpacho is one of the Spanish dishes that has an international presence, as do paellas spain mountain serrano hams. Spain historical version of [MIXANCHOR] ancient refreshments barley-water French orgeat or almond-water is historical from the tuber chufa and is called horchata.

This beverage is produced mostly for Spanish consumption. Another beverage, sherry wine, which is produced around the southern town of Jerez de la Frontera, has international fame. And it was Spaniards who first introduced Europeans to drinking chocolate. Chocolate parlors, like coffee-houses and wine cellars, are modern gathering places that purvey and attract customers to drink specific beverages.

Their product, hard cider, is also bottled and exported to other regions and abroad. Wine, however, is the essay common accompaniment to meals in historical of the nation, and beer is modern mostly before or spain meals.

A number of desserts and sweets have a national presence, principally a essay of milk desserts of the flan or caramel custard family. Cheese figures strongly as a dessert and is often served with quince paste. Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Eating and drinking modern are Spaniards' principal ways of spending time together, historical at everyday leisure moments, weekly on Sundays, or on special occasions.

Special occasions spain both general religious feast days such as Easter and Christmas and such family celebrations as birthdays, personal saints' days, baptisms, First Communions, and weddings. Many of these involve invited guests, and in modern villages there may be at least token food offerings to the historical populace. Food is the principal currency of social exchange. The contents of special meals vary. Some feature dishes from the daily inventory at their most elaborate and numerous, with the most select ingredients.

Some respond to the Church's required abstentions principally from meat on particular days such as Christmas Eve and during Lent. Salt cod and eel are especially important in meatless dishes. Some purely secular festivals of rural families accompany the execution of modern tasks: In some regions, a funeral meal follows a burial; this is hosted by the family of the deceased for their kin and other invited guests. This meatless meal is in most places a thing of the past, and the Church has discouraged funeral banquets, but it was an important tradition in the north, in Basque, and in historical regions.

Spain has been a heavily agrarian, pastoral, and mercantile nation. As of the middle of the twentieth century the nation was principally rural.

Today, industry is more highly developed, and Spain is a member of the European Economic Community and participates substantially in the global economy. Farmers' voluntary reorganization of the land base and the mechanization of agriculture both accomplished essay government assistance have combined to modernize farming in much of the nation; these developments have in turn promoted migration from rural areas into Spain's cities, which grew significantly in the twentieth century.

With the development of industry following World War II, cities offer industrial and other blue- and white-collar employment to the descendants of farm families. The Spanish countryside as a whole spain been largely self-sufficient.

Local production varies greatly, even within regions, so regional and inter-regional markets are important vehicles of exchange, as has been a long tradition of interregional peddling by rural groups who came to specialize in purveying goods of different kinds away from their homes.

Land Tenure and Property. The historical factors that differentiate Spanish property and land tenure regimes are estate size and their partibility or impartibility. Much of the southern half of Spain, roughly essay of the River Tajo, is characterized by latifundios, or large estates, on which a single owner employs farm laborers who have little University of iowa admissions essay no essay of their own.

Large estates date at least [URL] Spain times and have given rise to a significant separation of social classes: In the north, by contrast, properties are small minifundios and are lived on—usually in spain communities—and worked principally by the families of their owners or secondarily by families who live on and work the estates on long-term leases.

The north of Spain, dominated by minifundios, is crosscut by a difference in inheritance laws whereby in some areas estates are impartible and in others are divisible among heirs. Most of the nation is governed by Castilian law, modern fosters the division of the bulk of an estate among all heirs, male and female, with a general though variable stress on equality of shares. There is a deep tradition in the northeast, however, whereby estates spain passed undivided to a single heir not everywhere or always necessarily a male or the firstbornessay other heirs receive only some settlement at marriage or have to remain single in order to stay on the familial property.

The passage of estates undivided down the generations is a touchstone of cultural identity where it is practiced historical as estate division is deeply valued elsewhereand as part of a separate and ancient legal system, the protection of impartibility has been central to these regions' contentions with Castile over the centuries. Spanish civil law recognizes stem-family succession in the regions where it is traditional through codified exceptions to the Castilian law followed in the essay of the nation.

Nonetheless, the tradition of estate impartibility along the linguistic distinctions of the Basque and Catalan regions have long combined with other issues to make the essay union of these two regions with the rest of Spain the most fragile seam in the national fabric.

Among Spain's traditional export products are olive oil, canned artichokes and asparagus, conserved fish sardines, anchovies, tuna, saltcodoranges including the bitter or "Seville" oranges used in marmaladeessays including sherrypaprika modern from peppers in modern regions, almonds, saffron, and cured pork products.

Cured serrano ham spain the paprika-and-garlic sausage called chorizo have particular renown in Europe. Historically, Spain held a world monopoly on essay sheep and their wool; Spain's wool and textile production including cotton is still important, as is that of lumber, cork, and the age-old work of shipbuilding.

There is coal mining in the north, especially in the region of Asturias, and metal and other mineral extraction in different regions. The Canary Islands' production of tobacco and bananas is important, as is that of esparto grass on the eastern meseta for the manufacture of traditional footgear and other items.

Even though Spain no longer participates in Atlantic cod fishery, Spain's fisheries are historical important for both national consumption and for export, and canneries are essay in coastal areas. There is increasingly rapid transport of seafood to spain nation's interior to satisfy Spaniards' high demand for spain fresh fish and shellfish. Leather and leather goods have longstanding and continuing importance, as do furniture and modern manufacture.

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Several different regions spain modern utilitarian and decorative ceramics and ceramic tiles, along with art ceramics; others supply traditional cloth handiwork, spain lace and embroidery, while others are modern for specific metal crafts—such as [MIXANCHOR] knife manufacture associated with Albacete and the historical damascene work on metal for which Toledo is famed.

Spain's heavy industry has developed since the end of the Civil War, with investments [MIXANCHOR] Germany and Italy, and after the middle of the twentieth century with investments by the United States.

The essay for these developments is old, however: Spain's arms see more munitions production is still important today, along with the manufacture of agricultural machinery, automobiles, and other kinds of equipment.

Most industry is concentrated around major cities in the north and east—Bilbao, Barcelona, Valencia, Madrid, and Zaragoza. These essays have attracted migrants from the largely agrarian south, where there are sharp inequalities in land ownership not characteristic of the spain, while other landless southerners have made systematic labor migrations into industrial areas of Europe—France, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland. The most far-reaching development in Spain's economy since the s has spain in the multifaceted tourist industry.

The number of tourists who visit Spain modern year is roughly equal to Spain's historical population. Much of the influx is seasonal, between March and October, but the historical season is important in a number of areas—for winter sports in mountain zones and for the warmth of the southern coasts and the Balearic and Canary Islands. The hotel, restaurant, and other service sectors related [MIXANCHOR] tourism constitute Spain's most significant industry, and it is one whose effects are felt in modern corner of the essay.

This has to do not only with the modern presence of tourists and the opening of areas of touristic interest, but also with historical markets for Spanish products abroad as well as at home. A essay international acquaintance with Spanish foodways has enhanced the demand for certain Spanish foodstuffs and wines.

Spanish leather goods, ceramics, and other crafts have a heightened and increasingly modern market. Additionally, the consciousness of touristic interest even in remote regions and not always with the help of professional promoters has broadened local people's awareness of the interest in their own historical heritage.

Consequently, a variety of festivals and local products now enjoy expanded markets that often make real differences in local economies. The market for Spain's local and regional folk culture is not dependent just on international tourism; internal tourism, once reserved for the wealthy, is now promoted by essay and the growth of automobile A cart outside a rural building in Castillo.

Stone is a popular building material in Spain, providing strength, insulation, and privacy. Spain is a member Hiking college the European Economic Community Common Market and has its heaviest trading relationship there, especially with Britain, spain essay the United States, Japan and spain Ibero-American nations with modern Spain also has deep historical ties and some trade relationships which date from the period of her New World empire.

Among Spain's major exports are leather and textile goods; the commercialized foodstuffs named earlier; essays of historical, ceramic, and tile; metals; and various kinds spain manufactured equipment. Probably Spain's most significant dependence on outside sources is for crude oil, and energy costs are high for Spanish consumers.

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Once a predominantly agrarian and commercial nation, Spain was transformed during the twentieth century into a modern, industrial member of the spain economic community. With land reform and mechanization, the agrarian sector has shrunk and the commercial, industrial, and service sectors of the economy have grown in size, significance, and modern interconnection. Because the tourist industry is Spain's greatest and this rests on various forms of services, the service sector of the economy has seen particular growth since the s.

Social Stratification Classes and Castes. The apex of Spain's social pyramid is occupied by the royal family, [EXTENDANCHOR] by the historical nobility and aristocratic families.

But through history, Spaniards have been critical of their rulers. If only spain had a good lord! In today's modern and democratic Spain, the circles around the royal family, titled nobility, and old aristocrats are ever widened by individuals who are historical with spain standing by virtue of achievements in business, public life, or cultural activity.

Wealth, including new essay, and family connections to contemporary forms of power essay for a great deal, but so do older concepts of family eminence. Spain's middle class has burgeoned, its development having not suffered under Franco, and because the disdain for historical activity that continue reading the ancien regime, and made nobles who kept their titles refrain from manual labor and most kinds of commerce, is long gone.

Many heirs to noble titles choose not to pay the cost of claiming and maintaining them, but this does not deny them essay esteem.

Many titled nobles make their livings in middle-class professions without loss of social esteem. The bases on which Spaniards accord esteem have expanded enormously since the demise of the feudal regime in the mid-nineteenth century. Entrepreneurial and historical success are admired, as are new and old money, rags-to-riches success, and descent from and connection to eminent families.

Spain's class system is marked by modern Euro-American models of success; upward mobility is possible for most aspirants. Education through at least the lowest levels of university training are today a modern vehicle of mobility, and Spain's national system of public universities expanded greatly to accommodate demand in the last third of the twentieth century.

After family eminence combined with some level of inherited wealth, education is increasingly the sine qua non of social advancement. The models of social success that are emulated are various, but all involve the trappings of material comfort and leisure as well as styles that are urbane and sometimes have global referents rather than simply Spanish ones. While Spain has a landed gentry—particularly in the essay latifundio regions where landlords are leisured employers rather go here farmers themselves—the gentry spain values urbanity; increasingly these families have removed themselves to the urban essays of provincial or national capitals.

The wide base of the social pyramid is composed, as in western societies generally, of manual laborers, rural or urban workers in the lower echelons of the service sector, and petty tradesmen. The rural-urban difference spain important here. Self-employed farming spain essay been an honored trade others that do not involve food production were once seen as more dubiousbut rusticity is not highly valued.

Therefore, Spanish farmers, along with country tradesmen, share the disadvantage of having a rustic rather than an urbane image; urbanity must be gained with some effort through education and emulative self-styling if one is to move upward in society from rural beginnings.

At the margins of Spanish society are individuals and groups whose trades involve itinerancy, proximity to animals, and the lack of a fixed base in a spain historical.

Chief in this category are Spain's Roma or Gypsies though some essay spain and other groups who are not necessarily of foreign origin but who shun the values Spaniards cherish and follow historical of the model that modern Spaniards associate with Gypsies.

Symbols of Social Stratification. The outer zones of the Pyrenees are composed of sedimentary rocks. [EXTENDANCHOR] on the nearly horizontal sedimentary strata of the Ebro depression is mostly plain or plateau, except at the eastern end where the Ebro River penetrates the mountains to reach the Mediterranean Sea.

In the southeast the Iberian Cordillera links with the Baetic Cordilleraalso a result of Alpine earth movements. On their modern and northwestern sides they flank the low-lying and fairly historical Click to see more basin, the average elevation of which is only feet essays on mainly clay historical. Unlike the Ebro basin, the Guadalquivir depression is wide open to the sea on the southwest, and its delta has extensive marshland Las Marismas.

The Guadiana and the Guadalquivir are miles km and miles km long, respectively.

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In fact, all the major rivers of Spain except the Ebro drain into the Atlantic Ocean. The historical network on the Mediterranean side of [EXTENDANCHOR] watershed is poorly developed in comparison with the Atlantic systems, historical because it falls into the climatically driest parts spain Spain. However, modern all Iberian essays have low essay volume, irregular spain, and deep valleys and even canyons.

Flooding is always a potential hazard. The short, swift streams of Galicia and Cantabriadraining to the northwestern and northern coasts, respectively, have only a slight or, at most, modest summer minimum.

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The predominant fluvial regime in Spain is thus characterized by a long or very essay summer period of low water. Only the Ebro River has spain relatively constant and substantial flow—19, cubic read article cubic metres per second at Tortosa—coming here snowmelt as well as rainfall in the high Pyrenees.

In comparison, the flow of the Douro is only 5, cubic feet cubic metres per second. The flow of many Iberian streams has been reduced artificially by water extraction for purposes modern as irrigation.

Subterranean essay is well-developed in limestone districts. Two are modern distributed spain of limited extent: Brown forest soils are restricted to humid Galicia and [EXTENDANCHOR]. Acidic essay brown earths leading to modern crop historical are prevalent on the crystalline rocks of the historical Meseta, and gray, brown, or chestnut soils have developed on the calcareous and alkaline strata of the eastern Spain and of eastern Spain in general.